Causes of Albinism
Albinism is caused by a mutation in one of several different genes involved in making the pigment melanin.
Prevalence of Albinism
Although albinism can affect all races and ethnic groups, some parts of the world including Africa have a much higher rate. For example one in 35 south African blacks is a carrier of albinism mutation. [olade 2007] In addition one in every 4,000 people in South Africa is born with albinism: in contrast, in Denmark, the figures are only 1 in 60,000 (parliament forum on small arms and light weapons 2009). The type of albinism prevalent in n the United States of America is type 1 (tyrosinase-negative).
The frequency of this type of albinism is about 1 in every 20,000 Tyrosinase –positive albinism is the most prevalent type found through out Africa. Where in can range from 1 in every 2000 to 1 in every 5000.. This type is also higher in African American population where it can be found where it van be found in the ratio of 1 in every 10, 000as compared to 1in every 36000 among Caucasian-Americans. Similarly, the frequency of Hermannsky –Pudlak syndrome is much higher in Puerto Rico where it is approximately one in every 2,700.